The Bukidnon (Magahat, Karolano, Mangahat, Buquitnon) of Negros Oriental are different from the group of a similar name found in Mindanao which is of Manobo affinity. There are two apparent subgroupings of the Negros Bukidnon: the (1) Magahat who live along the tributaries of upper Tayaban, in the municipalities of Tanjay, Santa Catalina, Bayawan (Tolong), and Siaton; and the (2) Karol-ano in the municipality of Kabankalan. The group is dispersed in the different barangays of the municipality, principally in Kamansi, Oringao, Kabagayan, Manapla, Lumbangan, Mabuhay, and Tayasan.

       The Bukidnon are shifting cultivators of the uplands in the interior of the island. Their subsistence is mixed with food gathering. There is little substantial ethnography on this group. They are not sedentary but they maintain trade relationships with the lowland communities. The group was first mentioned in 1894 in a report pointing out the existence of some 8,000 infieles in the interior; and then again later in an account of the massacre of an upland community in the implementation of the policy of reduccion. The Bukidnon since then have undergone acculturation while maintaining an upland adaptation.

       The culture is generalized Visayan adapted to dry agricultural regimes up to elevations of 3,000 feet, planted to a wide range of cultigens with emphasis on rice. There is a similarity in culture with the Sulod of Panay. The language is related to both Sugbuhanon and Hiligaynon.

Distribution of Ethnic Groups by Provinces
(Arrangement: Population count)
Total National Population 74,228
Agusan del N. 20
Agusan del S. 11
Bohol 41
Bukidnon 22,053
Bulacan 11
Cavite 19
Cebu 30
Davao 8
Davao del S. 11
Davao Or. 11
Lanao del S. 13
Misamis Occ. 41
Misamis Or. 2,237
Mt. Province 34
Negros Or. 10
Pangasinan 41
Quirino 83
Rizal 10
Siquijor 37
S. Cotabato 21
Surigao N. 27
Tawi-Tawi 9
Zambonaga N. 192
Kalookan 11
Makati 10
Paranaque 22
Quezon City 10
Agusan del N. 144
Agusan del S. 53
Basilan 10
Batangas 9
Benguet 30
Bohol 244
Bukidnon 47,019
Bulacan 10
Camiguin 10
Cavite 65
Cebu 517
Davao 100
Davao del S. 267
Laguna 16
Lanao del N. 16
Lanao del S. 10
Leyte 10
Masbate 9
Misamis Occ. 18
Misamis Or. 101
Negros Occ. 10
Negros Or. 47
N. Cotabato 10
Rizal 21
Siquijor 21
S. Cotabato 73
S. Kudarat 10
Surigao N. 71
Surigao S. 57
Zambales 10
Zamboanga S. 124
Manila 29
Makati 11
Navotas 10
Paranaque 10
Pasay 10
Taguig 13
*(The NSO census does not distinguish between Bukidnon of Negros (Magahat/Carol-an) and Bukidnon (Manobo) of Mindanao.)