The Kalagan (Tagakaolo, Dagan, Laoc, Saka, Caragan, Calagan, Kagan, Laoc, Saka, Caragan, Calagan, Saka, Mandaya, Mansaka) belong to the Mandaya/Mansaka group, and have three subgroups: (1) Tagakaolo proper, (2) Kagan, and (3) Lao. The latter is an acculturated group in the Haguimitan mountains of the San Agustin peninsula on the east side of Davao gulf, now largely occupied by the Mandaya. The core areas are in the places between the coast and the B’laan country in the province of Davao. They are in the tributaries of Malita and Lais, and Talaguton rivers in the interior. The population is estimated at 87,270 (NM 1994). Historically these were composed of small, warring groups.

       Much of subsistence is through dry cultivation of a wide range of crops that include rice and tubers. It is supplemented by food gathering. Rice is being supplanted by corn in importance as the basic staple of the people. Corn is cropped two or three times a year.

       Traditional culture is similar to the neighboring Kulaman and B’laan, where specific territories are ruled over by a strong man with special status. The culture however has undergone many changes with its linkages with the national market systems.

Distribution of Ethnic Groups by Provinces
(Arrangement: Population count)
Total National Population 21,381
+ 65,889
87,270
Benguet 10
Bohol 10
Cavite 10
Davao 4705 (NM 1991:21624)
Davao Or. 8794 (NM 1991:48052)
Davao del S. 4,453
(NM 1991:12230)
Ilocos S. 16
Isabela 29
Kalinga-Apayao 9
Maguindanao 9
N. Cotabato 52
Nueva Vizcaya 194
Pangasinan 95
S. Cotabato 2,925
(NM 1991:4860)
S. Kudarat 8
Surigao del N. 10
Zambales 20
Zamboanga S. 32