Historically, this is a mixed group (Calinga, Kalingga, Kalina’) but now considered as a more or less homogenous group with an estimated population of 83,963 in the provinces of Kalinga and Apayao. The core areas of the group are in the drainage areas of the Chico river and its tributaries in northern Cordillera. One of the ways the culture has been grouped is as follows: Balbalan (northern), Lubuagan (southern), and Maducayan (eastern). Another postulated subgrouping is: (1) Giad’anBalbalasang, (2) Sumadel, (3) Lubuagan, (4) Nabayugan, (5) AbligSaligsig, (6) Kalagua, and (7) MangaliLubo. There is a little-known highly mobile group in the Kalakad-Tupac area in east Tanudan.

       The population is a mixed group thought to be descendants of migrants into the area from the Cagayan valley to the east and the province of Abra to the west. The population concentrations are in Pinukpok (13,469), Tabuk (19,835), Balbalan (9,745), Tinglayan (12,306), and Tanudan (9,242). The national population is 91,128 (NSO 1990). There is a marked difference between the northern and the southern populations due to the introduction of wet rice terracing in the south from Bontoc. An eastern grouping caused by geographic circumscription is also recognized. The society is organized into endogamous groups stemming from budongalliances. Because of their dress and personal ornamentations, the Kalinga have been dubbed the “Peacocks of the North.” Their octagonal house in southern Kalinga is distinctive, as well as the peace pacts that they enter into to preserve relationships with neighboring groups. Settlement areas are more dense in the south.

       Agriculture is also carried on in terraces, though less grandiose than those of the Ifugao and Bontoc, and field preparation is done with the use of draft animals. Rice is the principal crop. Swidden crops include beans, sweet potato, corn, sugarcane, and taro. Coffee is a popular cash crop. Distinctive pottery, basketry, and metal craft are known.

Distribution of Ethnic Groups by Provinces
(Arrangement: Population count)
Total National Population 91,128
Kalinga-Apayao 83,963
Agusan N. 10
Aklan 10
Batangas 10
Benguet 2,527
Bukidnon 11
Cagayan 593
Camiguin 8
Cavite 52
Davao S. 11
Isabela 1,599
La Union 33
Laguna 10
Manila 20
Misamis Or. 7
Mt. Prov. 1,746
Negros Occ. 10
N. Ecija 159
N. Vizcaya 47
Palawan 10
Pampanga 21
Pangasinan 49
Quirino 10
S. Cotabato 9
Zambales 193
Makati 10