The Mangyan (Iraya, Alangan, Batangan, Tadyawan, Buhid, Tao Buid, Hanunoo, Ratagnon; also known in literature as Mangianes, Manghianes, Manguianes, Tiron, Lactan, Buquit, Barangan, Tagaydan, Pula, Nauhan, and Buid) is a generic term that refer to the indigenous peoples of the island of Mindoro.
Several groupings have been noted by different authorities. These include: (1) Hanunoo, southern part of Oriental Mindoro, (2) Buhid, just north of the Hanunoo, (3) Batangan, in the interior forests north of the Buhid, (4) Ratagnon, in the southern tip of the island, (5) Iraya, on the northern tip of Mindoro, (6) Tadyawan, on the east and northeastern side, and (7) Alangan, on the vicinity Mount Halcon. The range of the other names by which they are known is also very wide, especially with reference to exonyms. The estimated population is 30,000 (NSO 1980) with core areas located in the towns of Sablayan (4,140 NSO 1980), Bulalacao (5,316 NSO 1990), and Mansalay (4,090 NSO 1980).
Settlements are usually composed of five to twelve houses with single families, on slopes near mountain streams. Each settlement is usually identified by the name of the oldest member. An aggregation of settlements may be geographically identified. The basic subsistence is shifting cultivation with corn and rice as crops, intercropped with beans and sugar cane, later planted to sweet potato, yam, and taro.
The single most impressive distinction of the Mangyan is their continued use of a native Indic-based script or syllabary for writing their ambahan or urukay, a form of poetry and song. These are written by stylus or knives on slivers of bamboo. These are sang or chanted accompanied by guitars, fiddles, flutes or jew’s harps. Only the Hanunoo of southeastern Mindoro and the Buhid on the south of Bongabon River actually use the script, although there is a second type of script unknown to these two groups. This script is used by the Buhid along the Tangon River.
|Distribution of Ethnic Groups by Provinces
(Arrangement: Population count)
|Total National Population||21,862
|Agusan del N.||10 (Ir.)|
|Davao Or.||10 (Ir.)|
|Ilocso N.||12 (Ir.)|
|Lanao del N.||53 (Ir.)|
|Misamis Occ.||20 (Ir.)|
|Occ. Mindoro||380 (Ir.)|
|Or. Mindoro||75 (Ir.)|
|Surigao del S.||10 (Ir.)|
|Zamboanga S.||23 (Ir.)|
|N. Cotabato||10 (Ir.)|
|(Note: in NSO 1990 Census Mangyan is distinguished from Iraya)|