The Ibaloy (Ibaloi, Ibadoy, Igodor, Benguet Igorot, Nabaloi, Benguet, Iniballuy) constitute a large ethnic group that number approximately 112,447 (NSO 1990) and are found in Benguet province, principally in the municipalities of Itogon (12,353), Tuba (11,063), La Trinidad (12,136), Bokod (8,911), Baguio (68,550), and Atok (9,063) (NSO 1980, 1990). The population has spread to the neighboring provinces of Pangasinan, La Union, Nueva Vizcaya, and Nueva Ecija. Kabayan is recognized as the center of Ibaloy culture. The settlements are scattered in the municipalities of Bokod, Atok, Tublay, Sablan, and Kabayan. A wide range of dialectical differences are known but not clearly studied. Thus far, (1) Ibaloy Proper and (2) Karao are the subgroups cited.

       To some extent, rice terracing is practiced in the lower reaches of the drainange systems. Sweet potato and taro are planted dry in areas that cannot be irrigated. The terracing technology is at present applied to middle latitude vegetable growing. Rice is the principal and ritual food. Animal husbandry is practiced, although meat is traditionally limited to ritual consumption. The group has a long history of gold and copper mining.

       The Ibaloy lack the ward system of the Bontoc although in the past there were communal dormitories. A traditional community would have a council of elders (tongtong) whose opinions hold sway over a two-tiered social system: the rich (baknang) and the poor (abitug). Deities collectively called “Kabunian” include the major entity, “Kabigat.” Souls of departed relatives (kaamaran) are revered. Ritual celebrations, reportedly numbering more than 40 classes are conducted by mambunung. These include the prestige feast pashit and curing seances that feature animal sacrifice, feasting, and use of fermented rice beer. The rich in Kabayan used to be interred in coffins after mummification in artificially made caves.


Distribution of Ethnic Groups by Provinces
(Arrangement: Population count)
Total National Population 112,447
Abra 5
Agusan N. 10
Agusan S. 240
Aurora 29
Basilan 18
Batangas 13
Benguet 86,052
Bukidnon 303
Bulacan 20
Cagayan 198
Capiz 484
Cavite 10
Davao 10
Davao S. 91
Davao Or. 38
Ifugao 85
Iloilo 1,113
Isabela 2,205
Kalinga-Apayao 435
La Union 1,276
Lanao S. 127
Maguindanao 29
Mt. Province 12
Negros Occ. 1,838
Negros Of. 1,314
N. Cotabato 100
N. Ecija 216
N. Vizcaya 13,406
Or. Mindoro 11
Palawan 29
Pangasinan 748
Quirino 1,104
Romblon 160
S. Cotabato 377
S. Kudarat 185
Surigao S. 55
Zambales 29
Zamboanga S. 51
Valenzuela 10
Paranaque 11

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