The earliest indications of religious activities are probably the existence of petrographs, petroglyphs, and the like, suggesting man’s attempt to influence the elements of nature to his advantage. Examples of these have been found in the provinces of Rizal, Bohol, Mountain Province, and Palawan. The way man relates himself to the spiritual worlds varies in accordance with the factors he has to deal with since his culture dictates this. In a general sense, the deities he recognizes belong to different pantheons, with each deity limited to a particular domain and others with a broader scope of powers. Some are mere anthropomorphization of natural phenomena such as the makakameng or “owner” of the I’wak; others are abstractions of social values, e.g., thekabbigat or the lawgiver of the Ifugao. Religious cosmologies, too, differ from the layered one that exemplified the underworlds and upperworlds, to an inversion of the real world as among the Pala’wan. To the south, Islam as adapted by local cultures flourishes among the Maguindanao, Maranao, and Tausug with the religious structures impeding into the political structures. But everywhere in the Philippines, the pattern is the same where the various functional structures overlap in a number of ways such that it is difficult for instance to separate the political from the religious leadership. And like his political counterpart, the religious leader holds no special privilege in the community that exempts him from his own domestic obligations. Thus, he cuts his own forest and tends his own fields.